What kind of meals are there? Tableware material classification and characteristics

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1, ceramic tableware

Ceramics have been widely recognized as non-toxic tableware and reports of poisoning of porcelain tableware. It turns out that some of the beautiful outerwear (glaze) of porcelain tableware contain lead. If the temperature is not enough when the porcelain is burned or the glaze ingredients do not meet the standard, the tableware may contain more lead. When the food comes into contact with the tableware, the lead may overflow the surface of the glaze and mix into the food. Therefore, those ceramic products with thorny, spotty, uneven enamel or even cracks should not be used as tableware. When selecting porcelain tableware, use the index finger to gently slap on the porcelain. If it can make a crisp, squeaky sound, it indicates that the porcelain embryo is delicate and burnt well. If the sound is dumb, it is porcelain damaged or porcelain. The embryo is inferior.

2, glass tableware

It is hygienic and generally does not contain toxic substances. However, glass tableware is fragile and sometimes "mold". This is because the glass is eroded by water for a long time, and it is harmful to human health. It should be washed off with an alkaline detergent.

3, enamel tableware

Enamel products have good mechanical strength, are strong, not easily broken, and have good heat resistance and can withstand a wide range of temperature changes. The texture is smooth and clean, and it is not easy to be contaminated with dust, and it is clean and durable. The disadvantage of enamel products is that they are often cracked and broken after being hit by an external force. The outer layer of the enamel product is actually a layer of enamel, containing a substance such as aluminum silicate. If it is damaged, it will be transferred to the food. Therefore, when purchasing enamel tableware, the surface is required to be smooth and flat, the enamel is uniform, the color is bright, and there is no visible powder and embryo phenomenon.

4, wooden tableware

The biggest advantage of bamboo and wood tableware is that it is easy to take and has no toxic effects of chemicals. But their weakness is that they are more polluted and moldy than other tableware. If you do not pay attention to disinfection, it is easy to cause intestinal infectious diseases.

5, copper tableware

Many people use copper tableware, copper pots, copper spoons, copper hot pots and so on. On the surface of copper tableware, some blue-green powder is often seen, which is called copper rust. It is an oxide of copper and is non-toxic. However, for the sake of cleaning, it is best to polish the surface of the copper tableware with sandpaper before loading the food.

6, iron tableware

In general, iron tableware is non-toxic. However, iron is prone to rust, and rust can cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, upset, poor appetite and other diseases. In addition, it is not advisable to use iron containers for cooking oil, because the oil is stored in the iron for too long and is easily oxidized and deteriorated. At the same time, it is best not to use iron containers to cook foods and beverages rich in tannins, such as juice, brown sugar products, tea, coffee, etc.

7, aluminum tableware

Non-toxic, light and durable, good quality and low price, but aluminum accumulates too much in the human body, has the effect of accelerating aging, and has a certain adverse effect on people's memory. Aluminum tableware should not be used to cook acidic and alkaline foods, and should not be used for long-term meals and long-term salty foods.

Iron and aluminum tableware should not be used together. Since aluminum and iron are two metals with different chemical activities, aluminum and iron can form a chemical battery when water is present. As a result, more aluminum ions enter the food. Bring more harm to human health.

8, alloy tableware

Alloy tableware mainly refers to tableware produced using PPS and SPS materials. PPS has the advantages of high temperature resistance, corrosion resistance, radiation resistance, flame retardancy, balanced physical and mechanical properties, excellent dimensional stability and excellent electrical properties. The alloy tableware on the market is mainly alloy chopsticks. Compared with chopsticks of other materials, the alloy chopsticks have the advantages of high temperature, no deformation, easy cleaning, no mildew, difficulty in adsorbing microorganisms such as E. coli, durability and corrosion resistance. The alloy chopsticks are safe and hygienic, and do not produce harmful substances to the human body at high temperatures. Since PPS and SPS are imported materials, they are slightly higher in price. In China, most of them are gifts and high-grade hotels using alloy chopsticks made of such imported materials.

9, stainless steel cutlery

It is beautiful, light, easy to use, corrosion-resistant and rust-free. It is favored by people. Stainless steel is made of iron-chromium alloy mixed with nickel, molybdenum and other metals. Therefore, it should be noted that it should not be used for salt, soy sauce or vinegar for a long time. Etc., because the electrolyte in these foods reacts with the stainless steel for a long time, so that harmful substances are dissolved.

10, titanium tableware

Using the characteristics of smart metal titanium combined with a special physicochemical surface coloring process, it has a unique gold-titanium tableware luster, and the texture can be comparable to silver tableware. Titanium tableware is the trend of materials used in tableware in the future. Because of its light weight and light weight, it has the characteristics of non-toxic, tasteless, non-radiative, non-rusting, corrosion-resistant, wear-resistant, tough, and good bio-affinity. Titanium tableware is both practical and collectible. It is a gift for friends and relatives. It has long been favored by people from all walks of life.

11, amine tableware

The melamine tableware, also known as the melamine melamine product, is formed by heat and pressure pressing of melamine resin powder. It is widely used in the catering industry and children's catering industry due to its light weight, beautiful appearance, low temperature resistance and non-breaking properties.

Melamine tableware is a high molecular polymer, abbreviated as MF in English, and its monomer is formaldehyde and melamine. A 37% aqueous solution of formaldehyde was used in the reaction, and the molar ratio of the two monomers of formaldehyde and melamine was 2 to 3. Studies have shown that with the increase of formaldehyde dosage, the amount of formaldehyde is also increased, and the reaction is easy to carry out; changing the amount of formaldehyde can produce melamine resin obtained from different methylol melamine. When the pH of the reaction system is 8.5, side reaction Less, the reaction is easy to control; the temperature is high, the reaction speed is fast, and the amount of formaldehyde binding is little affected in the range of 54-80 °C.

12, plastic tableware

Commonly used plastic tableware is basically made of polyethylene and polypropylene. This is a non-toxic plastic approved by the health department of most countries. The sugar boxes, tea trays, rice bowls, cold water bottles, and milk bottles on the market are all such plastics. However, polyvinyl chloride, which is similar in structure to polyethylene, is a dangerous molecule. A rare hepatic hemangioma has been found, which is almost associated with people who are frequently exposed to polyvinyl chloride. Therefore, when using plastic products, be sure to pay attention to what the raw materials are. When there is no product specification at hand, it can be identified by the following methods: Any plastic product that feels smooth, flammable in fire, yellow flame and paraffin when burned, is non-toxic polyethylene or polypropylene. Any plastic that feels sticky, flame-resistant, burns with a green flame, and has a scent of scent is polyvinyl chloride, which cannot be used as a food container. Do not choose bright plastic tableware. According to tests, the release of heavy metal elements such as lead and cadmium in the color pattern of some plastic tableware exceeds the standard. Therefore, try to choose no decorative patterns and colorless and tasteless.

13, couple tableware

As the name implies, it is a pair of tableware, a tableware for exclusive couples. It captures the idea of ​​seeking witnesses between modern couples, and designs and creates tableware that is both practical, beautiful and unique.

14, antibacterial tableware

Also known as sterilized tableware is the use of antibacterial agents in the raw materials of the tableware to make the tableware can be sterilized without any treatment. The material of the sterilized tableware is mainly melamine tableware. Stainless steel sterilized tableware, alloy sterilized tableware and ceramic sterilized tableware. This kind of tableware uses the principle of nano silver sterilization to kill the bacteria on the surface of the tableware.

15, disinfection tableware

It refers to a tableware that has been disinfected by a special method to kill pathogenic microorganisms. Do not choose to paint chopsticks. The paint contains toxic substances such as lead and cadmium.

16, disposable tableware

It is made of plastic, high foaming material, coated paper, etc.

National classification

Tableware can be divided into medium and western tableware according to the country. The tableware is the tableware used by the average Chinese to eat, such as chopsticks. The so-called western tableware is a special tableware for eating western food, generally including cutlery. Due to the development of China's catering industry, hotels and restaurants are generally common tableware, which is unsanitary. Therefore, various kinds of disinfection tableware have appeared one after another, presenting a group of enterprises that use disinfection equipment as an example.

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